ISO 45001即將在2021年取代OHSAS18001，你知道該如何因應這波轉換措施嗎？ISO 45001的真正價值到底是什麼呢？
OHSAS 18001 對於企業用以管理安全、衛生已經是個非常有用的標準，但是18001將在2021年退役，而我們現在擁有一個國際正式的標準－ISO 45001。
移除OHSAS 18001對於某些企業組織是個兩難：如果可以運作的話，為何要移除呢？然而，你無法用一個退役的標準去評估。為了要獲得外部驗證的好處，改用ISO 45001將是個最好的方法。ISO 45001有許多比OHSAS 18001更重要的進步，包含：更強調勞工與其參與。
當OHSAS 18001 變得過時的時候，你將會失去一個外部評估的管理系統。此外，你還將喪失採納客戶心態而獲得的效益。
通常供應商的需求中都包含了安全和衛生的元素。例如：一個客戶要求擁有外部評估與認證安全衛生的管理系統是很常見的。另外，當OHSAS 18001 消失時，你將會很難符合合約要求。
ISO 45001與OHSAS 18001有什麼差異？
現階段來說兩者非常雷同。OHSAS 18001 與ISO 45001都旨在透過一個結構性方法來辨識、評估、控制風險以及降低死亡率、傷殘、疾病等。此外，兩者也致力於透過降低風險來形成持續性的進步。
但兩者之間還是有關於標準結構和內容的不同。ISO 45001與其他國際標準一樣（如：ISO 9001和 ISO 14001），都依循高階管理的結構。
ISO 45001幫助使用者以一個企業流程去管理風險，而不是以一個標準方法。其中一項進步中，ISO 45001可以同時做到機會管理以及風險管理。這也讓持續性的改進方法得到支持。
除了證明保留有記錄的訊息或記錄的要求之外，對文件的要求沒有實際增加。OHSAS 18001與ISO 45001都從未規定過文件化程序的要求。兩個標準都以基礎風險方法去要求文件，為了確保這些必要風險管理的程序、表格、紀錄和說明都到位。OHSAS 18001與ISO 45001都要求這些複雜的文件以最小量的方法保存。
利用ISO 45001去幫助管理風險、承攬商、核心、支持流程以及設備，人們給予你機會不光是控制更是去評估與改進員工與他人的安全衛生。ISO 45001驗證讓你有機會去辨識進步，以及降低未來的傷殘、疾病、死亡風險。
最大的困難處在於誤解ISO 45001的真正目的。這個標準被企業視作辨識、評估、管理以及降低風險。任何企業視ISO為官僚主義的話，他們都誤解了。如果你誠摯的希望可以保護你的員工、承攬商、訪客以及鄰居，那導入ISO 45001是不會有任何的阻礙。
ISO 45001: The Benefits of Change
A question I’m often asked is: If our current EHS management system is working for us, why should we be interested in ISO 45001?
OHSAS 18001 has been a very useful standard to help businesses structure their approach to managing health and safety, but 18001 will be retired in 2021 and we now have an actual international standard in ISO 45001.
Removing OHSAS 18001 is a dilemma for some organizations: why change if things are working? However, you can’t be assessed against a retired standard. To continue to receive the benefits of external validation, moving to ISO 45001 is the best solution. ISO 45001 includes some very important improvements over OHSAS 18001, including greater emphasis on workers and their participation.
Other improvements include an enhanced approach to managing the health and safety of contractors and making health and safety part of the purchasing decision-making process. There’s greater emphasis on leadership participation, change management and performance management.
What would happen if you did nothing?
Hopefully nothing, but when OHSAS 18001 becomes redundant, you will no longer have an externally assessed management system and you will lose the benefit of the “fresh eyes” approach.
Often supply chain requirements have health and safety elements. For example, it is often a customer requirement to have an externally assessed and certified health and safety management system. Where this is the case, it may be difficult to meet your contractual requirements when OHSAS 18001 has gone.
There are additional benefits from implementing management systems other than the increased control of hazard and risk, such as potentially lower insurance premiums, better employee retention and morale, outside investment, clear management information and much more.
How different is ISO 45001 from OHSAS 18001?
In essence, they are very similar. OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001 both have the aim of reducing deaths, injury and illness through a structured approach to identifying, assessing and controlling risk, and they’ve both got the aim of continual improvement through risk reduction.
There are some differences regarding the structure of the standards and the content. ISO 45001 follows the same high-level structure as other international standards such as ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.
ISO 45001 helps users to manage risk as a business process rather than as a standards approach. One of the key improvements to ISO 45001 includes opportunity management as well as risk management, which supports the continual improvement approach.
Linking health and safety with business strategy is another great improvement, as is the enhanced role of leadership and management teams. Health and safety needs to focus on people and their interaction within the workplace, so worker participation and inclusion have also been strengthened.
What are some concerns about implementing or migrating to ISO 45001?
Organizations seem mostly concerned about the effort that it will take to migrate to ISO 45001. The enhancements and the new requirements of the standard mean that if you have a proactive approach to health and safety management, these elements may already be in place.
There is no real increase in the requirement for documentation other than to evidence the requirements with the retention of documented information or records. OHSAS 18001 has never mandated the requirements for documented procedures and neither does ISO 45001. Both standards require a risk-based approach to documented information to ensure that only the procedures, forms and records and instructions that are necessary to manage risks are in place. Both OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001 require the complexity of documentation to be kept to the minimum.
Where does the true value lie within ISO 45001?
True implementation of a structured approach to managing health and safety means implementing a system and not a standard. Organizations that implement a standard tend to focus on compliance and not the effectiveness. The true value of ISO 45001 comes from linking the business strategy and the health and safety management system—not developing a standalone set of documents.
Using ISO 45001 to help manage risks and contractors, core and support processes, equipment and people gives you the opportunity not only to control but to assess and improve the health and safety of workers and others. Certification to ISO 45001 gives you the opportunity to identify improvements and further reduce the risk of injury, illness and death.
What are the obstacles to adoption or implementation?
If an organization truly seeks to reduce the risks of illness, injury and death then it should do all it can in its endeavors, using all best practice and guidance from all possible sources. The main obstacles come from misunderstanding the real purpose of ISO 45001. The standard itself has been written for businesses to identify, assess, manage and reduce risk. Secondary to this is the benefit gained for certification. Organizations that see ISO standards as bureaucratic have misunderstood their purpose, so if you are sincerely interested in protecting workers, contractors, visitors and neighbors, then there should be no objection to adopting ISO 45001.